This theme looks at cities as though they are a living organism. It considers the stocks and flows through the urban environment in terms of energy and resources. It also includes the implications of climate change for cities and topics such as ecosystem services.

Urban ecosystem services

Cardiff Bay Wetlands Reserve showing St Davids Hotel (Cardiff Harbour Authority/CC BY-SA 3.0)

What opportunities might ecosystem services hold for the future city? Green roofs, living walls and vertical gardening are just some of the ideas mentioned in the latest paper published by the Future of Cities project.